Institutions, organizations, and poverty: Challenges to
coastal zone management in Colombia and Ghana
A paper with the above title was prepared for the annual conference of the Norwegian Association for Development Research (NFU), Bergen, Norway, 5-7 November 2007. Theme: “Making institutions work for the poor?” Conference website: www.cmi.no/nfu/2007. The paper can be downloaded here.
This page presents: (1) the authors, (2) the conference and the specific workshop that the paper was allocated to, (3) the paper abstract, (4) the list of references (several of which can be downloaded) and (5) additional references (several of which can be downloaded).
- Lars T. Soeftestad. CEO, Supras Consult (Kristiansand, Norway) [contact]
- Laura M. Alayón. MA student, Resource Economics Program, University of Massachusetts Amherst (Amherst, Mass., United States). [email]
The conference: Background
The following is quoted from the conference website:
Over the past decade and a half, there have been important shifts in the politics of developing countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, as single party systems and military dictatorships have been gradually replaced by one or another form of liberal democracy. These shifts have been welcomed by scholars, policy makers and civil society organisations alike on the basis that liberal democratic institutions are commonly thought by the international community to represent the best means to guarantee citizens´ substantive access and participation in decision making processes, the exaction of accountability, the promotion of economic growth, and integration of the interests and concerns of the poor. However, if the expectation was that these new democracies would focus on tackling the problems of poverty, exclusion, and conflict, this has not turned out to be the case. Despite the emergence of a large number of civil society organisations and the creation of watchdog institutions, the dominant portrayal of the developing world remains one of a region wracked by violent conflicts, rising economic inequalities and greater social exclusion. The international community has been left with the difficulty of addressing the problem that despite the existence of ostensibly democratic structures in a large number of new democracies in the South, many of the key political institutions that underpin them fail to work adequately for the poor. It is in the light of recognizing this problem and representation as a barrier for poverty reduction that this conference asks: How can we build institutions that work for the poor?
We propose to address this question through discussion of the incentive and leverage structures that may be found within and beyond relevant development and governmental institutions, and to study how these structures affect the operation and relevance of institutions that are important for the poor and for fighting poverty. Integral to this focus is a quest to understand the conditions under which configurations of power at the international, nation and local levels inform the development of policies especially in arenas such as rural and urban development, service delivery, infrastructural development, trade and environmental management, which arguably have greater affect on the lives of people living in a developing country context than anywhere else. These are the arenas that have been most commonly targeted for poverty alleviation initiatives by both state officials and international development assistance programmes. However, in recent years questions about the ethical and political formation of international development policies and the linkages to foreign investments have begun to be asked. Seeking to extend this process of critical reflection, we suggest that questions also be raised about the importance of social mobilization and the emergence of viable competitive political systems on the social configurations of power. Consideration needs to be made of how these influence and impact on policies and stable government, and of how these competitive processes can in certain circumstances lead to innovations in public policy-making for the poor, and by the poor.
Seeing then the need to form a frame of analysis and discussion that stretches beyond the formal to the informal, the conference aims to encourage the creation of a forum in which different theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and approaches to development practice can be expressed and discussed. Papers are therefore invited that can empirically and/or theoretically contribute to a series of multi-disciplinary workshops that match, or address in general three broadly recognized lines of institutional failure and democratic responsibility: (1) Economic (e.g., fiscal policy, corruption and corporate governance), (2) Political participation (e.g., ideological divisions, ethnic and social marginalisation and racism) and (3) Securing of rights (e.g., human, customary, gendered and generational).
The conference: The workshop
The paper was allocated to Workshop no. 3 “Rural sector institutions revisited: Long traditions, new trends?”. The following is quoted from the conference website:
Rural sectors like agriculture, fishing, pastoralism, forestry and wildlife continue to be the basis of livelihood for large populations in developing countries. Since early colonial days, the primary sector has been subject to institution building, and the history of state institutions in particular contains a long list of ill-fated attempts to control resources and to change production methods based on ideas of modernisation. The policy outcomes have often been insufficiently adapted to social and environmental realities, or favoured privileged groups and environments at the expense of marginal populations and lands. Although new paradigms of participatory approaches like ‘Community Based Natural Resource Management’ have flourished for a couple of decades, the traditions for top-down approaches, expert-led management and reductionist research are still very prominent in institutions focused on the primary sector. Moreover, the shrinking of the state sector resulting from structural adjustment programmes has further aggravated the ability of primary sector institutions in many countries to provide the services they were intended to give. The focus of donors (and recipient states) has thus to some degree been re-orientated towards NGOs as instrumental in the process, though the relationship between state and private sector actors is often poorly developed and there may even be conflict between old state monopolies and the political pressure for deregulation.
This workshop welcomes papers that present research that investigate the political and disciplinary legacies that continue to shape the attitudes of bureaucrats, researchers and extension workers, and that highlight the extent to which state institutions or NGOs are currently able to enable primary producers in their livelihood strategies. It further welcomes papers that discuss the degree to which local institutions enable different groups in rural communities to sustain a viable livelihood and, finally, papers that present cases of success or failure in the attempt to link state-centred and local approaches to resource management and production strategies.
The paper: Title and abstract
Title: Institutions, organizations and poverty: Challenges to coastal zone management in Colombia and Ghana
Abstract: Coastal zones globally are hotspots when it comes to the challenges of sustainable resource management and poverty reduction. They used to be relatively underpopulated and placid. This is changing due to growing population movements towards the coastal zones. Migrants as a rule do not find what they hoped for, but instead increasingly overpopulated, under-serviced, polluted, conflict ridden, resource-depleted, and poverty-stricken areas. Developing countries are modernizing, and people, social organization, and associated cultures are caught in between tradition and modernity. Efforts to deal with the social and environmental ills in coastal zones will have to address these separate rationales and realities.
The paper focuses on this dichotomous management through addressing selected coastal institutions and organizations in Colombia and Ghana. Relevant institutions, together with two organizations that are based on a similar modernizing logic, namely Corporation for the Sustainable Development of the Archipelago of San Andres, Old Providence, and Santa Catalina Islands (CORALINA) in Colombia, and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Ghana, are analyzed. The Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework is employed.
On Providence Island in Colombia there are few traditional institutions, while in Ghana the traditional sector is identical with the pervasive chieftaincy system. CORALINA and EPA have met with differential success in engaging the community level. CORALINA faces the challenge of engaging people that do not really care, and creating an organization from scratch, while EPA has difficulties reaching out to the local level.
The essence of how to bridge the traditional and modernizing sectors and address the intricate poverty-environment nexus would seem to lie in: (1) creating new organizations or reform existing ones, from the bottom up and founded upon relevant institutions and (2) establish co-management arrangements that are transparent, inclusive and address conflicts.
Comments: Please note that the abstract is revised relative to the version that was submitted to the conference.
Literature, References in the paper
Below is the paper's list of references. Several can be downloaded as pdf files, and others can be accessed via the Internet. The references are organized in these topics: (1) Theory: institutional analysis and the IAD framework, (2) Theory: Property rights and social and ecological systems, (3) Methods: CBNRM, co-management and social analysis, (4) Case: Colombia, (5) Case: Ghana, (6) Economics and (7) Various. The topics overlap, and several references could have been listed under more than one topic.
(1) Theory: Institutional analysis and the IAD framework
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- Ostrom, Elinor, 1990. Governing the commons. The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Ostrom, Elinor. 1997. Esquemas institucionales para el manejo exitoso de recursos comunes. Gaceta Ecológica (INE - SEMARNAP, México), Nueva Época, no. 45, pp. 32-48.
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- Ostrom, Elinor, Roy Gardner and James Walker. 1994. Rules, games, and common pool resources. Ann Arbor, USA: University of Michigan Press.
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(2) Theory: Collective action, Property rights, Social and ecological systems
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- Ostrom, Elinor. 1998. A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action: presidential address. The American Political Science Review 92, no. 1 (March): 1-2.
- Ostrom, Elinor, Roy Gardner and James Walker. 1994. Rules, games, and common pool resources. Ann Arbor, USA: University of Michigan Press.
- Perrings, Charles. 1998. Resilience in the dynamics of economy-environment systems. Environmental and Resource Economics 11, nos. 3-4: 503-520.
(3) Methods: CBNRM, Co-management, Social analysis
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- Moore, Keith M. 2004. “Social infrastructure for decentralized NRM governance.” Prepared for the SANREM CRSP “Accomplishments and lessons learned workshop” June 2004. Washington DC, USA.
- Soeftestad, Lars T. 1998. “Community-based natural resource management: A cross-cutting initiative.” Presentation to the World Bank’s Operations Evaluation Department (OEDST), 27 May 1998. Washington DC, USA: World Bank Institute, World Bank. [doc]
- Soeftestad, Lars T. 1999. “Report on the International workshop on Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM),” Washington DC, USA, 10-14 May 1998. With Christopher D. Gerrard. Washington DC, USA: World Bank Institute, World Bank. [online] [url] [doc]
- World Bank. 1995b. Social assessment. Social Development Notes, no. 13 (September). Washington DC, USA: World Bank. [doc]
- World Bank. 2005. Social analysis guidelines in natural resource management. Incorporating social dimensions into Bank-supported projects. Washington DC, USA: World Bank. [doc]
- World Bank. 2007. TIPS sourcebook: Tools for institutional, political and social analysis for policy reform. Washington DC, USA: World Bank. [online] [url - Español, Français, Português] [doc]
(4) Case: Colombia
- Alayón, Laura. 2005. “Cangrejos negros con y sin fin: Regulaciones externas y apropiaciones locales en el manejo de un recurso en las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina.” Thesis. Bogotá, Colombia: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. [doc]
- Alayón, Laura. 2006. “External regulations and local appropriations in the management of a resource in Old Providence and Santa Catalina Islands.” Paper prepared for the 11th conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP), Bali, Indonesia, 19-23 June 2006. [doc]
- Alayón, Laura and Alberto Llach. 2004. “Diagnóstico base de la comunidad de capturadores Frente al esfuerzo de captura, racionalidad y estado del recurso Cangrejo Negro en la Isla de Providencia. Informe final de la práctica de semestre social. CORALINA Providencia.” Bogotá, Colombia: Facultad de Estudios Ambientales y Rurales, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
- Buitrago, David. 2004. “La pesquería en Providencia y Santa Catalina, Islas del caribe Occidental Estrategias de aprovechamiento pesquero relacionadas con el palangre vertical. Trabajo de grado en biología marina.” Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano.
- FAO. 2003. “Fishery country profile - Colombia.” Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [online] [url]
- Gorricho, Julia and Camila Rivera. 2003. “Entre el discurso global de ‘Reserva de biosfera’ y la realidad local de los pescadores: una aproximación práctica en el caso de la isla de Providencia y Santa Catalina.” Old Providence, Colombia: Old Providence and Santa Catalina Fishing & Farming Cooperative Enterprise. [doc]
- Gorricho, Julia. 2005. “Hacia un manejo colaborativo de los Recursos Pesqueros en el Caribe Colombiano.” Sin Publicar.
- Howard, Marion V., Valeria Pizarro and June M. Mow. 2004. Ethnic and biological diversity within the Seaflower Biosphere Reserve. In: Island biodiversity: Sustaining life in vulnerable ecosystems. February 2004. INSULA: The International Journal of Island Affairs, pp. 109-11. Geneva, Switzerland: UNESCO. [doc]
- Márquez, Germán E. 1987. “Las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina. Ecología regional.“ Colombia: Fondo FEN Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
- Monsalve, L. 2003. “Las Islas de los Cangrejos Negros. Representaciones de la naturaleza en Old Providence y Santa Catalina a partir de las relaciones sociales entre los pobladores locales con su territorio y con los Cangrejos Negros.” Dissertation. Bogotá, Colombia: Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de los Andes.
- Mow, June M. 2006. “The native islanders of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina: Dreaming between two worlds.” San Andres Island, Columbia: Providence Foundation. (Comment: Paper prepared for the conference “Islands of the world IX: Sustainable islands - sustainable strategies.” Kahului, Maui, Hawaii’i, 29 July - 4 August 2006.) [doc]
- Rocha Gordo, Juan C. 2006. “Resiliencia ecológica de la pesquería artesanal de Langosta Espinosa (Panulirus argus) en Providencia y Santa Catalina, escenarios virtuales y reflexiones acerca de su sostenibilidad.” Memorias primer congreso nacional estudiantil de ecología, Octobre 19 y 20 de 2006. Bogotá, Colombia: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. [doc]
- Sjogreen, Marcela. 1999. “Estudio bioecológico de la población de cangrejos Gecarcinus ruricola en las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina.” Dissertation. Bogotá, Colombia: Facultad de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
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(5) Case: Ghana
- Allotey, Jonathan A. 2002. The regional network experience – Presentation on the Ghana EPA experience. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Environmental Compliance and Enforcement, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 2002.
- Amlalo, Daniel S. 2006. The protection, management and development of the marine and coastal environment of Ghana. In: “Administering marine spaces: international issues.” FIG Publication, no. 36, pp. 148-57. (Publ. by the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), Commissions 4 & 7, Working Group 4.3.) [online] [url] [doc]
- Anane, Mike. n.d. Implementing Agenda 21. Religion and conservation in Ghana. In: Implementing Agenda 21. New York: USA: UN-NGLS Publications. [online] [url]
- Assimeng, Max. 1995. “Institutions and natural resources in Ghana’s coastal zone.” December 1995. Washington DC, USA: Environment Group, Africa Region, World Bank. (Comment: report commissioned by Lars T. Soeftestad, in connection with the joint World Bank - EPA sector work on integrated coastal zone management, cf. World Bank (1996).)
- Atiemo, Abamfo O. 2006. International human rights, religious pluralism and the future of chieftaincy in Ghana. Exchange 35, no. 4 (November).
- Atta-Mills, John, Jackie Alder and Ussif R. Sumaila. 2004. The decline of a regional fishing nation: the case of Ghana and West Africa. Natural Resources Forum 28, no. 1: 13-21.
- Bannerman, Paul. 2000. “Management of conflicts in tropical fisheries. Ghana final report.” Accra, Ghana: Marine Fisheries Research Division.
- Bennett, Elizabeth. 2000. “Institutions, economics and conflicts: fisheries management under pressure.” Paper prepared for the 8th conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP), Bloomington, Indiana, USA, 31 May - 4 June 2000.
- Crook, Richard. 2005. “The role of traditional institutions in political change and development.” CDD/ODI Policy Brief, no. 4, November 2005.
- Entsuah-Mensah, Mamaa, P. K. Ofori-Danson and K. A. Koranteng. 2000. Management issues for the sustainable use of lagoon fish resources. In: Biodiversity and sustainable use of fish in the coastal zone. Abban, E. K., C. M. V. Casal, T. M. Falk and R. S. V. Pullin, eds., pp. 24-27. ICLARM Conference Proceedings, vol. 62.
- EPA. n.d. Official website. Accra, Ghana: Environmental Protection Agency. [online] [url 1] [url 2]
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- Kraan, Marloes. 2007. “‘God’s time is best’. The role or religion in fisheries management of Anlo-Ewe beach seine fishermen in Ghana.” Paper prepared for the annual conference of the Centre for Maritime Research, Netherlands, 5-7 July 2007.
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- Overå, Ragnhild. 2000. “Institutions, mobility and resilience in the Fante migratory fisheries of West-Africa.” MacArthur Foundation project ‘Small-scale fisheries in Africa: Demographic Dynamics and local resource management.’ Bergen, Norway: Chr. Michelsens Institute.
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- Soeftestad, Lars T. 1995-96. “Field notes.” (Comment: prepared in connection with the joint World Bank - Ghana EPA sector work on integrated coastal zone management in Ghana, cf. World Bank (1996).)
- Soeftestad, Lars T. 1996a. “Ghana sector work on integrated coastal zone management. May 1996 Stakeholder workshop process – process documentation.” Washington DC, USA: Social Policy and Resettlement Division, World Bank. [doc]
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Literature, Additional references
(a) Coasts as complex adaptive systems
- Adger, W. Neil. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: Are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24, no. 3: 347-64. [doc]
- Adger, W. Neil, et al. 2005. Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science 309, 12 August 2005: 1036-39. [doc]
- Walker, Brian, et al. 2002. Resilience management in social-ecological systems: A working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Biology 6, no. 1: 14-30. [doc]
(b) Institutional analysis, the IAD framework
- FAO and SEAGA. 1988. Venn diagrams: institutional profiles. In: Field handbook: Socio-economic and gender analysis programme. Tools A5 and A6. Rome, Italy: FAO. [online] [url]
- Ostrom, Elinor. 1998. The institutional analysis and development approach. In: Designing institutions for environmental and resource management, eds. Edna Tusak Loehman and D. Marc Kilgour, pp 68-90. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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- Pomeroy, R. S. 1998. Institutional analysis. In: Participatory methods in community-based resource management 2, pp. 118-130. Silang, Cavite, Philippines: International Institute for Rural Reconstruction (IIRR).
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(c) Case: Colombia
- Howard, Marion W. 2006. “Evaluation report. Seaflower Biosphere Reserve implementation: The first five years 2000-2005. Archipelago of San Andres, Old Providence & Santa Catalina, Colombia.” Colombia: The Corporation for the Sustainable Development of the Archipelago of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina (CORALINA), June 2006. [doc]
(d) Case: Ghana
- Amlalo, Daniel S. and J. A. Allotey. 1991. “The need for sustainable coastal zone management: The involvement of NGOs.” Paper presented at the National Workshop for NGOs on the Environment Action Plan, Sunyani, Ghana.
- Amlalo, Daniel S. 1997. “Biodiversity conservation: Traditional knowledge and modern concepts.” In Proceedings of the third UNESCO MAB Regional seminar on Biosphere Reserves for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development in Anglophone Africa (BRAAF), Cape Coast, South Africa, 9-12 March.
- Amlalo, Daniel S., et al. 2001. “Ghana national report on integrated problem analysis (WGIPA) for the GEF MSP project ‘Development and protection of the coastal and marine environment in Sub-Saharan Africa’, coordinated by ACOPS and UNESCO-IOC.”
- Armah, A. K. and Daniel S. Amlalo. 1998. “Coastal zone profile of Ghana.” Accra, Ghana: Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystem Project, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology.
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- Soeftestad, Lars T. 1996. “Towards an integrated coastal zone management strategy in Ghana.” Presentation at the final stakeholder workshop of the Ghana Sector Work on Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Accra, Ghana, 21 May 1996. Accra, Ghana & Washington DC, USA: Ghana Environmental Protection Agency & Africa Technical Families: Environment, World Bank.
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